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This fresco was painted in the 11th century at Lšuthaus in Lambach Monastery in Upper Austria.  It portrays Jesus preaching in the Capernaum synagogue and debating with people (Luke 4:31 - 44). 

These are sample debates we've had with supporters of Penal Substitution. 


Correspondence with KH On Penal Substitution 

debates on email with a Southern Baptist Arminian, last updated Apr 7, 2017


Correspondence with ELS & MT3 On Penal Substitution 

short debate on Facebook, last updated Apr 2017


Correspondence with TF about the Goodness of God and the Will of God 

short discussion on Facebook,

last updated May 17, 2017


Debate on Facebook, Tim Catchim's post

from June 7, 2017; a long, sprawling, and sometimes entertaining debate when the Southern Baptist Convention declared that Penal Substitution is the gospel itself


Debate with Tim Keller and Derek Rishmawy on Calvin's Claim that Jesus "Descended Into Hell"

from July 31, 2017 when DR had TK write this guest post on his blog; Tim Catchim weighed in to challenge the logic and the exegesis


Debate on Facebook about whether Athanasius believed in penal substitution

from May 28, 2018 when Michael Bird suggested he did; Mako posted lots of material to refute that; he also debated an Old Testament professor about the Sinai covenant and God's justice being restorative vs. retributive

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