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Hope Filled Full: 

How the New Testament

Quotes from the Old Testament

Part One:  The New Testament and the Hopes of the Pentateuch


Part Two:  The New Testament and the Hopes of Isaiah


Part Three:  The New Testament and the Hopes of the Psalms


Part Four:  The New Testament and the Hopes of the Septuagint (TBD)

NHI Resources on Understanding Scripture as Literature


The Art of Biblical Narrative:  Special Focus on Luke-Acts


The Art of Biblical Narrative:  A Workshop on Luke 5:1 - 16


Reconciling the Gospels: 

The Legion Demoniac - An Application of the Literary Methodology


Reconciling the Gospels: 

Did Matthew, Mark, and Luke Believe Jesus was God?


Why We Must Know All Four Gospels to Interpret One Gospel Well: 

The Pastoral Significance of the Synoptic Problem


How to Develop Bible Studies and Curriculum from the Gospels 

Other Resources on Understanding Scripture as Literature


The Bible Project, Literary Styles in Biblical Narrative

(The Bible Project, Jun 22, 2017)  


The Bible Project, The Bible as Jewish Meditation Literature

(The Bible Project, Aug 3, 2017)


The Bible Project, Plot in Biblical Narrative

(The Bible Project, Sep 28, 2017)

shows how we have to contextualize smaller stories into each biblical book and into the overall biblical story (a literary-canonical approach); points out how we use the story of Gideon setting out a fleece out of its context


The Bible Project, Character in Biblical Narrative

(The Bible Project, Jan 18, 2018)


The Bible Project, Setting in Biblical Narrative

(The Bible Project, Mar 1, 2018)


The Bible Project, Design Patterns in Biblical Narrative

(The Bible Project, Mar 29, 2018)

an excellent treatment; uses the 'new life through water' motif of God's creation, and the 'see-take' motif of human sin


The Bible Project, The Art of Biblical Poetry

(The Bible Project, May 24, 2018)

 explains rhyming by concepts and coupling 

How the Meanings of Words Are

Determined by Their Context


N.T. Wright, The Resurrection of the Son of God, Chapter 1: The Sun and the Arrows (book, May 2003) The phrase "I'm mad about my flat" means: "I'm angry about my flat tire" in the US, but "I'm happy about my apartment" in the UK


Mark Nichol, 75 Contronyms (Words With Contradictory Meanings) (Daily Writing Tips, Sep 14, 2011) "the oversight was sanctioned" has four virtually opposite meanings, which must be understood from the context in which one uses the phrase


Saturday Night Live, Bushwick, Brooklyn 2015 (Saturday Night Live, Jan 18, 2015) comedic sketch about the difference between urban black and suburban white use of the same words


Margot Robbie, 50 Australian Slang Terms in Under 4 Minutes (Vanity Fair, Jul 6, 2016)


Jessica Brown, English Words That Have Totally Different Meanings Around the World (Indy100, Oct 16, 2016)


Austin Sarat, Trump's Loose Talk Came Back to Haunt Him in Judge's Travel Ban Ruling (The Guardian, Mar 15, 2017) shows how words have a context


Yahoo! Answers, How is "Hold You Down" a Good Thing? (Yahoo! Answers) how a phrase in one context means something different in another


Fr. Lawrence Farley, David Bentley Hart’s "The New Testament: a Translation" (No Other Foundation blog, Oct 9, 2017) makes helpful remarks about languages and translations


Fresh Off the Boat, Funny Moments #13 (Fresh Off the Boat / Random Clipz, Jan 1, 2019) at the 3 minute mark; demonstrates by subtitling English for English how even English words need to be interpreted in the context of the relationship in which they are spoken; competitive sisters can say and understand otherwise polite words like insults

How Storytelling and Song Help Us Interpret Scripture


Mike Klimo, Ring Theory: The Hidden Artistry of the Star Wars Prequels (Star Wars Ring Theory, Oct 31, 2014) a lengthy but entertaining example of a chiasmus


Frederic Limon, The Big Mistake in the Second (and Third) Hobbit Movies (video, Oct 24, 2014) makes a great observation about how music works in film which explains how literary allusions work in literature, including Scripture


Screen Rant, Movies with Hidden Details in First and Final Scenes (youtube video, Aug 20, 2015) a helpful interpretive device


Vox, Rapping Deconstructed: The Best Rhymers of All Time (Vox, May 19, 2016) a great 12 minute video explaining beats, bar lines, rhymes, implied words, and story - similar to Hebrew word play, alliteration, implied meanings, conceptual rhyming


Michael Tucker, The Dark Knight — Creating the Ultimate Antagonist (Lessons from the Screenplay, Aug 23, 2016) the weakness in the protagonist drives the story; this is similar to the biblical story as a whole, and often particular biblical stories 


Michael Tucker, Rogue One vs. The Force Awakens — The Fault in Our Star Wars (Lessons from the Screenplay, Apr 30, 2017) about passive vs. active protagonists which also applies to characterization in the biblical narratives


Eric Voss, Wonder Woman Theme - Why It Evokes Intense Power (New Rockstars, Jun 9, 2017) how the soundtrack background influences the foreground action; similar to literary allusions in the background of biblical passages


Sam Adams and Forrest Wickman, A Guide to The Last Jedi’s References to Other (Non-Star Wars) Movies (Slate, Dec 19, 2017) on how movies use other movies as material for allusions

The Old Testament as History and Literature


Canon Garratt, The Samaritan Pentateuch (article, Mar 21, 1904) implications of the Samaritan Torah on higher criticism and textual analysis


S.I. McMillen, M.D., None of These Diseases (Amazon book, 1963 originally)

A doctor makes a compelling case for divine influence in the biblical text by using comparative medical anthropology


Arthur Carl Piepkorn, What Does Inerrancy Mean? (Concordia Theological Monthly, Sep 1965) a Lutheran perspective


Gordon Hugenberger, The Historicity of the Bible (powerpoints to his class, The Theology of the Pentateuch)


N.T. Wright, How Can the Bible Be Authoritative? (1989, 1991)


Chuck Colson, The House of David (BreakPoint, Aug 6, 1996) archaeological attestation to King David


Frank Moore Cross, From Epic to Canon: History and Literature in Ancient Israel (Amazon book, 1998)


Kevin D. Miller, Did the Exodus Never Happen? (Christianity Today, Sep 7, 1998)


James K. Hoffmeier, Israel in Egypt: The Evidence for the Authenticity of the Exodus Tradition (Amazon book, 1999)


James K. Hoffmeier, Ancient Israel in Sinai: The Evidence for the Authenticity of the Wilderness Tradition (Amazon book, 2005)


Kenneth A. Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament (Amazon book, 2006)


Christopher Seitz, Prophecy and Hermeneutics: Towards a New Introduction to the Prophets (Amazon book, Aug 1, 2007)


Ben Witherington, The Relationship of the OT to the NT According to John Chrysostom (blog, Aug 28, 2007)


William Dever, Archaeology of the Hebrew Bible (Nova, Nov 8, 2008)


Christopher Seitz, The Goodly Fellowship of the Prophets: The Achievement of Association in Canon Formation (Amazon book, Oct 1, 2009) how the twelve minor prophets are related literarily


Roger Isaacs, Passover In Egypt: Did the Exodus Really Happen?(Huffington Post, Apr 9, 2011)


Brian LePort, A Survey of Views on the Historicity of Adam and Eve (The Archives Near Emmaus blog, Jun 5, 2012)


Annette Gordon-Reid, Slavery's Shadow: Historians' Problems with Slave Narratives (New Yorker, Oct 23, 2013) can accompany reflection on the socio-political context of biblical narrative


C.D. Elledge with Olivia Yeo, Rethinking the "Qumran Community": Recent Approaches (ASOR blog, Dec 13, 2013)


James Wood, Why? The Fictions of Life and Death (The New Yorker, Dec 9, 2013) on why stories and especially the novel wrestles with death - removing the story as a literary form from its original theological context (Hebrew biblical narrative) only leaves a deeply unsettling, emotional question:  why?


Brian Zahnd, My Problem with the Bible (blog, Feb 17, 2014) explains how his social-cultural location as a white male in America poses a challenge to his reading a Bible written for a powerless minority group


Sarah Knapton, Scientists: Noah's Ark Would Have Floated With 70,000 Animals If Built By Dimensions In The Bible (Business Insider, Apr 3, 2014)


Peter Enns, N.T. Wright on Jesus, Adam, Paul, and Hermeneutics (youtube video, May 23, 2014)


Anthony Grafton and James Grossman, Habits of Mind (The American Scholar, Dec 14, 2014) the second to last paragraph is an excellent statement about ancient historians


Eric Metaxas, Archaeological Evidence for the Exodus and the Trial of Jesus (BreakPoint, Jan 14, 2015)


Joshua Berman, Was There an Exodus? (Mosaic Magazine, Mar 2, 2015)


Greg Boyd, Must We Deny Biblical Infallibility to “Disarm” Scripture? A Review of Derek Flood’s Disarming Scripture: Part 1 (ReKnew blog, Apr 13, 2015)


Greg Boyd, Disarming Flood's Case Against Biblical Infallibility (ReKnew blog, Apr 14, 2015)


Greg Boyd, Disarming Flood's Inadequate Conception of Biblical Authority (ReKnew blog, Apr 15, 2015)


Sara C. Nelson, Goliath Gates of Ancient Biblical City Unearthed by Archaeologists (Huffington Post, May 8, 2015)


Matthew W. Bates, The Birth of the Trinity: Jesus, God, and Spirit in New Testament and Early Christian Interpretations of the Old Testament (Academia paper, 2015) outstanding explanation of prosopological exegesis


Luke Chandler, New Khirbet Qeiyafa Inscription Published; What Does It Say? (Bible, Archaeology, Travel with Luke Chandler blog, Jun 3, 2015) about pottery with the name "Eshbaal" from 1 Chr.8:33 and 2 Sam.2 - 4, one of the sons of King Saul, born circa 1047 BC


Eric Jobe, The Masoretic Hebrew vs. The Septuagint (Ancient Faith blog, Jul 29, 2015) about textual variants


Golden Shofar, Critics of the Bible Silenced Again: Archaeological Discoveries Prove Old Testament To Be Accurate (Golden Shofar blog)


Eric Metaxas, Hello, Hezekiah! (BreakPoint, Aug 18, 2015) archaeology confirms King Hezekiah


Ari Rabinovitch, In Unique Discovery, Archaeologists Find King Hezekiah's Seal (Charisma News, Dec 2, 2015)


John Stonestreet, The Discovery of Gath (BreakPoint, Dec 5, 2015) archaeology confirms the city of Goliath


Nicholas St. Fleur, Story of Philistines Could Be Reshaped by Ancient Cemetery (NY Times, Jul 10, 2016)


Nicholas Wade, Modern Technology Unlocks Secrets of a Damaged Biblical Scroll (NY Times, Sep 21, 2016)

good example of textual transmission accuracy

The New Testament as History and Literature


Athanasius of Alexandria, Letter 39 (367 AD) (New Advent Fathers) lists the 66 books of the Bible


Simon Greenleaf, Testimony of the Evangelists (online book, 1846) co-founder of Harvard Law School explains the investigation that led him to Jesus  


C.S. Lewis, "Modern Theology and Biblical Criticism" in the book Christian Reflections (Amazon book, 1967)


G.K. Chesterton, The Everlasting Man (pdf book, 1925)


Gary Habermas, The Resurrection of Jesus: A Rational Inquiry (dissertation, 1976)


Lee Strobel, The Case for Christ: A Journalist's Personal Investigation of the Evidence for Jesus (Amazon book, Aug 1998)


N.T. Wright, The Resurrection as a Historical Problem (online article, 1988)


N.T. Wright, How Can the Bible Be Authoritative? (1989, 1991)


N.T. Wright, The New Testament and the People of God (pdf book, Feb 1992)


Kenneth Bailey, Informal Controlled Oral Tradition and the Synoptic Gospels (Themelios, 1995)


N.T. Wright, Jesus and the Victory of God (pdf book, Aug 1997)


Jefferson White, Evidence and Paul's Journeys (book, Jan 2001) and summary by the author


N.T. Wright, The Resurrection of the Son of God (pdf book, Mar 2003)


Alan Millard, Literacy in the Time of Jesus: Could His Words Have Been Recorded in His Lifetime? (Biblical Archaeology Society, Jul/Aug 2003)


William Lane Craig vs. Bart Ehrman: Is There Historical Evidence for Jesus' Resurrection (Reasonable Faith, Mar 28, 2006)


Ben Witherington, The Relationship of the OT to the NT According to John Chrysostom (blog, Aug 28, 2007)


Rodney Stark, Discovering God: The Origins of the Great Religions and the Evolution of Belief (Amazon book, 2007) sociologist Rodney Stark came to Jesus through historical sociology of religion


Stephen Colbert, Interview with Bart Ehrman (Colbert Report video, Apr 9, 2009) a very funny defense of the validity of the four Gospel accounts


N.T. Wright, Can a Scientist Believe in the Resurrection (lecture Dec , 2007)


Greg Boyd, Is There Archaeological Support for the Reliability of the Gospels? (ReKnew blog, Jan 2008)


N.T. Wright, Surprised by Hope (pdf book, Feb 2008)


Kata Christon blog, Bart Ehrman's Lost Christianities - A Critique (blog, Dec 27, 2010)


Peter J. Williams, Eyewitnesses to Jesus? New Evidence for the Authenticity of the Gospels (Veritas Forum lecture Apr 2012)


Gary Habermas, The Resurrection Argument That Changed a Generation of Scholars (Veritas Forum lecture Nov 2012)


N.T. Wright, Israel in Pauline Theology (video, Mar 20, 2014)


Amnon Rosenfeld, Howard Feldman, Wolfgang Krumbein, The Authenticity of the James Ossuary (Open Journal of Geology, Mar 2014)


Randall Collins, Jesus in Interaction: The Micro-Sociology of Charisma (blog, Apr 12, 2014)


Michael Bird, How God Became Jesus: Bart Ehrman Gets It Wrong (ABC News, Apr 16, 2014)


Steve Caruso, The Final Nail in the Coffin for the Gospel of Jesus' Wife (The Aramaic New Testament, Apr 25, 2014)


Jerry Pattengale, How the Jesus' Wife Hoax Fell Apart (The Wall Street Journal, May 1, 2014)


N.T. Wright, Fireside Chat About Reading and Internalizing Scripture (youtube video, Jul 7, 2014)


Michael Fitzgerald, Jesus the Consummate Story Teller (Boston Globe, Sep 7, 2014)


Zack Hunt, ISIS and the Good Samaritan (The American Jesus, Sep 22, 2014)


David Gibson, Forget Santa Claus, Virginia.  Was There a Jesus Christ? (Religion News Service, Dec 19, 2014)


Tom Belt and Dwayne Polk, The Colors of the Cross (An Open Orthodoxy blog, Jan 3, 2015)


Rod Dreher, How Bibliotherapy Works (The American Conservative, Jan 21, 2015)


Mark Tooley, Evangelicals Must Resist Mainline Protestant Trajectory

(Juicy Ecumenism blog, Feb 19, 2015)


Tony Costa, Was Adoptionism the Earliest Christology? A Response to Bart Ehrman (paper)


James Bishop, Extra-Biblical Evidence for the Historical Jesus (James Bishop blog, Apr 5, 2015)


Rachel Marie Stone, What One of the Anti-Vaccination Movement's Least Favorite Doctors Discovered About Jesus (Washington Post, Apr 13, 2015)


Isabel Kershner, A Carved Stone Block Upends Assumptions About Ancient Judaism (NY Times, Dec 8, 2015) the Magdala Stone in the synagogue


Michael J. Kruger, Did Papias Know the Apostle John? (blog, Apr 4, 2016)

an argument for the four Gospels being known by their current names by the end of the 1st century


Brice C. Jones, The Earliest Greek Manuscript of the Didache (P.Oxy.15.1782) (blog Apr 14, 2016) dated to 4th century Egypt, in small book (handheld codex) form


Michael Gryboski, Archaeology Discovery: First Century Synagogue Confirms New Testament Accounts of Jesus Christ (Christian Post, Aug 16, 2016) should be titled "...New Testament Accounts of Rural Synagogues"!


Top Tenz, Top 10 Horrifying Facts About the Roman Legions (Top Tenz, Dec 6, 2016)


Dave Armstrong, 10-Point Biblical Refutation of Sola Scriptura (National Catholic Register, Dec 11, 2016)