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The mosaic of Paul in St. Sophia, in Kiev, from 1000 AD.  The oldest known depiction of the apostle Paul is from a painting in the Catacombs of St. Thecla in Rome in the 4th century.  This mosaic portrays Paul in much the same way (see here).  The military conflict between Kiev and Constantinople concluded when Kievan Princess Olga was baptized in 955 or 957, and her grandson Vladimir made Kiev a Christian state.  Photo credit:  Public domain, Wikimedia Commons.


Notes and Essays

on Paul's Letters


Paul's Letters and Christian Political Identity in the First Century World


Paul's Language of Motivation:  Our Union with Christ  


Paul's Terminology for the Human Person


Paul's View of Headship in Marriage: How 1 Corinthians Interprets Ephesians and Colossians


Slavery in the Bible, Slavery Today (and ppt)


Women in Church Leadership part 1 and part 2


Women in Church Leadership and Biblical Translation


Whose Family? Which Union?  Reflections on Scripture, Human Sexuality and God's Purposes


Romans 9 - 11: Predestination and Free Will, Hardening of Hearts, Outreach to the Jewish Community (ppt)


The Holy Spirit: An Introduction, Three Aspects of Salvation (and ppt)


The Holy Spirit: His Gifts (ppt)


The Holy Spirit: The Spirit of Power and the Demons of Old (ppt)

Helpful Books and Articles on

Paul's Writings


Gordon D. Fee, Paul, the Spirit, and the People of God (pdf book, 1996)


N.T. Wright, New Perspectives on Paul (N.T. Wright Page, Aug 2003) and

Michael F. Bird, Ambrosiaster on "Works of the Law" (Patheos, Sep 28, 2013) and summary of positions; see Matthew J. Thomas, Paul's 'Works of the Law' in the Perspective of Second Century Reception (Amazon book, Aug 1, 2018) and summary by Scot McKnight, The New Perspective Is Earlier Than The Old Perspective (Patheos|Jesus Creed, Sep 24, 2018)


N.T. Wright, Gender and the Biblical Basis for Women's Service in the Church (video, 2004)


Dennis J. Preato, Empirical Data in Support of Egalitarian Marriages and A Fresh Perspective on Submission and Authority (God's Word to Women, Apr 23, 2004) note comments on Cyril, Theodore, and John Chrysostom and their engagement with 1 Corinthians and Ephesians based on an Athanasian view of the Trinity, where the Son is the power of the Father (1 Cor.1:24), rather than an Augustinian view of the Trinity, where the Son has power, but the Father has more


N.T. Wright, Paul's Gospel and Caesar's Empire (article, Sep 3, 2010)


David Instone-Brewer, Bible Scandals: Divorce (BeThinking, 2012) very important considerations for marital abuse cases


N.T. Wright, Paul and the Faithfulness of God (video, Jan 13, 2014)


N.T. Wright, How Paul Invented Christian Theology (video, Apr 25, 2014)


Michael Thate, Kevin Vanhoozer, and Douglas Campbell, "In Christ" in Paul (pdf book, Dec 1, 2014)


Scot McKnight, The Silence of Complementarians on Slavery (Patheos|Jesus Creed blog, Apr 25, 2016)


Liam Goligher, Is it Okay to Teach a Complementarianism Based on Eternal Subordination? (Mortification of Spin, Jun 3, 2016)


Liam Goligher, Reinventing God (Mortification of Spin, Jun 6, 2016)


N.T. Wright, If Creation is Through Christ, Evolution is What You'd Expect

(BioLogos, Apr 24, 2017) short, excellent 4 minute reflection on Colossians 1 and Genesis 1