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The Church of Saint George, one of the eleven churches hewn out of stone, in Lalibela, Ethiopia.  It was built in the late 12th or early 13th century.  Ethiopian Christian artwork also has a long and impressive history.

The Church as an Organization


Would Jesus be for Organized Religion?


Christian Ethics of Organization: 

The Church, Organizations, and Organizational Authority 

A long essay exploring authority in the church, and Christian ethics for any and all organizations


Church Structure and Mission: 

Organizational Diversity, Relational Unity


A Defense of Parachurch Organization


An Evaluation of the 'Five-Fold Ministry' (Eph.4:11) and 'the Charismatic Restoration' 


Why Are We Three Fellowships at Harvard?


Why Do We Do Ethnic-Specific Ministry, a vimeo by James Choung

Women in Church Leadership


The Rights of Women in the Bible part 1 and part 2


The Theme of Women in Judges, and the Portrayal of Deborah as Leader


Women Speaking Authoritatively in the Worship Service in 1 Corinthians 11


Women and Speech in 1 Corinthians 11 and 14  


The Gift of Prophecy in 1 Corinthians 14: Words of Hope from Your Mouth


Ephesians 4:11:  An Evaluation of the 'Five-Fold Ministry' and 'the Charismatic Restoration' 


The Implications of the Chiastic Structure of 1 Timothy on the Question of Women in Church Leadership


Paul's View of Headship in Marriage: How 1 Corinthians Interprets Ephesians and Colossians


Women Restored, Women Restoring

A thematic study of Luke - Acts 


Women in the Early Church part 1 and part 2  


Women in Church Leadership part 1 and part 2


Women in Church Leadership and Biblical Translation

Helpful Books and Articles on

Women in Church Leadership


Thomas F. Torrance, The Ministry of Women


John Wijngaards, Women Priests in the Ancient Church (Women Priests website)


Wijngaards Institute for Catholic Research, Women Deaconnesses in Historical Records (Women Can Be Priests website)


Wijngaards Institute for Catholic Research, Jesus Empowered Women to Preside at Eucharist (Women Can Be Priests website)


Gordon Hugenberger, Women in Church Office: Hermeneutics or Exegesis? A Survey of Approaches to 1 Tim 2:8 - 15 (paper, Journal of Evangelical Theology Society, Sep 1992)


N.T. Wright, Gender and the Biblical Basis for Women's Service in the Church (video, 2004)


Dennis J. Preato, Empirical Data in Support of Egalitarian Marriages and A Fresh Perspective on Submission and Authority (God's Word to Women, Apr 23, 2004) note comments on Cyril, Theodore, and John Chrysostom and their engagement with 1 Corinthians and Ephesians based on an Athanasian view of the Trinity, where the Son is the power of the Father (1 Cor.1:24), rather than an Augustinian view of the Trinity, where the Son has power, but the Father has more


Gordon Hugenberger, Women in Leadership (short summary, Park Street Church website, Apr 14, 2008)


Jimmy Carter, Losing My Religion for Equality (Women's Press, Jan 25, 2013)


Rachel Pietka, Hey John Piper, Is My Femininity Showing? The Implications of Allowing Women to Teach "Indirectly" (Christianity Today, Apr 2013)


Kate Wallace, A Complementarian View of Justice? (blog, Mar 14, 2014)


Virgins of the Desert (CityDesert website, Dec 6, 2014) about Egyptian monasticism with mention elsewhere


Amy R. Buckley, Why You Should Be a Christian Feminist (Relevant Magazine, Dec 31, 2014)


Brice C. Jones, Domestic Violence, Local Bishops, and a Church in a Fourth Century Papyrus (Brice C. Jones, Apr 19, 2015) a very important historical example


Orthodox Deaconness (St. Phoebe Center website) offers some insight into the decline of the female diaconate, and calls for reinstating it in Orthodoxy


Margaret Mowczko, Prominent Biblical Scholars on Women in Ministry (New Life blog)


Emily Nielsen Jones, A Plea to My Millennial Sisters*: Keep Ringing the Bell To Keep the Doors From Swinging Backwards on Your Daughters & Theirs… (Linked In, Oct 26, 2015)


Alex Mar, The Rebel Virgins and Desert Mothers Who Have Been Written Out of Christianity's Early History (Atlas Obscura, Jan 21, 2016)


Scot McKnight, The Silence of Complementarians on Slavery (Patheos blog, Apr 25, 2016)


Rachel Elizabeth Asproth, When Women Police Themselves, The Church Is Diminished (CBE International, May 10, 2016)


Patricia Miller, Women Are Leaving Church, and the Reason Seems Clear (Religion Dispatches, May 25, 2016) conservative politics


Liam Goligher, Is it Okay to Teach a Complementarianism Based on Eternal Subordination? (Mortification of Spin, Jun 3, 2016) excellent exploration of Nicene trinitarianism


Liam Goligher, Reinventing God (Mortification of Spin, Jun 6, 2016)


Michael F. Bird, Patristics Scholar Michel R. Barnes Weighs in on the Intra-Complementarian Debate on the Trinity (Patheos, Jun 13, 2016)


Michael F. Bird, Patristics Scholar Lewis Ayres Weighs in on the Intra-Complementarian Debate (Patheos, Jun 13, 2016) although Ayres holds to Augustine's version of the trinity, while I hold to an Athanasian version in accordance with the fourth century view, which arguably undergirded Nicaea 325 AD and Constantinople 381 AD; see Peter Leithart, Athanasius (Amazon book, Jul 2011) p.75 - 77


Jamin Hubner, Contemporary Revisions to Trinitarian Theology: A Concise Assessment (CBE International, Jun 21, 2016)


Mark Woods, Complementarianism and the Trinity: Is Wayne Grudem a Dangerous Heretic? (Christian Today, Jun 28, 2016)


Bobby Grow, A Response to Al Mohler on Tradition and the Trinity With Reference to Richard Muller (Evangelical Calvinist, Jun 28, 2016)


Bobby Grow, Maximus the Confessor's Response to the Eternal Functional Subordinationism in the Trinity (Evangelical Calvinist, Jun 30, 2016)


Jonathan Kleis, The Fathers, the Reformed, and the Orthodox Say ‘No’ to Eternal Trinitarian Subordination (Reformissio, Jul 10, 2016) T.F. Torrance's account of Athanasius' influence on the Council of Constantinople


Emily Nielson Jones, “Band of Brothers”: The Very Young, Very Male Face of Boston’s Church Planting Movement (Missio Alliance, Jul 20, 2016) a troubling pattern


Gary S. Shogren, Lady Apostle Lands in Jail! (Open Our Eyes Lord, Oct 29, 2016)


Kevin Giles, Seven Points in Favor of the Nicene and Reformed Doctrine of the Trinity (CBE International, Dec 14, 2016) rejecting a hierarchical Trinity and hierarchical gender relations


Allison Quient, The Trinity in Our Image? Reconsidering an Evangelical Social Agenda for the Trinity Pt.1 (Split Frame of Reference, Jan 4, 2017)

Helpful Books and Articles on

the Division from Chalcedon: The Oriental Orthodox


Peter Theodore Farrington, The Orthodox Christology of St. Severus of Antioch (Orthodox Wiki article)


Father Antony Paul, Chalcedonian and Coptic Orthodox: History, Similiarities, and Differences (Holy Transfiguration American Coptic American Church, Nov 20, 2016) a 50 minute Youtube video; helpful summary of the history of the 5th century; helpful comments about the term "monophysite" and why the Copts do not use the term "theosis," as the Eastern Orthodox do, because of their context in Islam

Helpful Books and Articles on

the Division of Catholic West and Orthodox East


The Filioque: a Church-Dividing Issue? An Agreed Statement of the North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation Saint Paul's College, Washington, D.C. October, 2003 (Assembly of Canonical Orthodox Bishops of the USA)

Helpful Books and Articles on

Mission and Organization


Edwin Hatch, The Organization of the Early Christian Churches (excerpt from his 1887 book)


Colin Gunton, The Promise of Trinitarian Theology (book, Dec 2003)


Jeff McSwain, Young Life and the Gospel of All-Along Belonging (The Other Journal, Jan 6, 2010)


Mike Breen, Why the Missional Movement Will Fail (blog, Sep 14, 2011)


Joshua Throneburg, Highrock College Message (video, 2012) why Highrock does not have college-specific groups and encourages students to be part of on-campus fellowships


Rabbi David Wolpe, The Limitations of Being "Spiritual But Not Religious" (Time op-ed, Mar 21, 2013)


Tim Keller, Parachurch Ministries Are Important (video, Sep 16, 2013)


Pastor J. John, How to Explain What You Do When You're a Pastor (TBN Trinity Broadcasting Network video, Nov 13, 2014)


Lynn Parramore, Americans Are Turning Away from Organized Religion in Record Numbers (Alternet, Mar 2, 2015)


Gary Hamel, The 15 Diseases of Leadership According to Pope Francis (Harvard Business Review, Apr 14, 2015)


Dorothy Greco, Pastoring Your Church Through a Leader's Misconduct (Christianity Today, May 4, 2015)


Francesca Gino and Bradley Staats, Why Organizations Don't Learn (Harvard Business Review, Nov 2015)


David Doherty, Baptizing Babies in the Early Church (Echoes in the Catacombs, Feb 15, 2018)

Helpful Books and Articles on



Paradosis Center (website)


A Brief History of the Universal Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch and all the East (Catholicose website)


The Coptic Church of Egypt (Coptic website)


Isfahan Christians in Iran (Iran Gazette)


Kallistos Ware, Orthodox and Catholics in the Seventeenth Century: Schism or Intercommunion? (paper)


Kerry S. Robichaux, Becoming Like Theosists: A Critique of Robert V. Rakestraw's Evangelical Doctrine of Theosis (Affirmation and Critique, Apr 1998)


Brant Pitre, Jesus, the New Temple, and the New Priesthood (Letter & Spirit, 2008) an Eastern Orthodox argument for priesthood


Olga Lossky, Toward the Endless Day: The Life of Elisabeth Behr-Sigel (Amazon book, Mar 15, 2010) about one of the most important 20th century Orthodox theologians


Benjamin Wyman, John & Charles Wesley and the History of Methodism (video, 2010)


Perry C. Robinson, Life in a Windowless Monad (Energetic Procession, Aug 28, 2010) an Eastern Orthodox argument linking Trinity and the form of church


Cyril Jenkins, The End of Catholicity Part 1Part 2Part 3 (Lux Christi blog, May 2012)


David Bentley Hart, The Myth of Schism (blog May, 2012)


Triablogue, 51 Biblical Proofs of a Pauline Papacy and Ephesian Primacy (blog, Aug 4, 2012) an interesting test of historical and hermeneutical logic


Marcus Plested, Aquinas, Between East and West (lecture Mar 4, 2013)


Christena Cleveland, Kobe Bryant, Self-Esteem, and Disunity in Christ (blog, Oct 15, 2013)


Matt Smethurst, Where Did All These Calvinists Come From? (The Gospel Coalition, Oct 23, 2013)


Peter Kwasniewski, Byzantine Splendor and Roman Sobriety (blog, Jan 9, 2014)


Scot McKnight, That Familiar Voice (blog, Apr 30, 2014)


Seraphim Danckaert, BBC Documentary on Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity (Orthodox Christian Network, Jun 25, 2014)


Trisagion Films, The Earliest Known Prayer to the Theotokos (Orthodox Outlet for Dogmatic Enquiries, Sep 9, 2014)


Marcus Plested, Aquinas in the Orthodox Tradition (youtube video, Oct 2, 2014)


Bishop Nicholas Samra, Eastern Catholicism in the Middle East (youtube video, Oct 23, 2014)


Steve Tompkins, Letter from Pastor Steve Tompkins regarding Mars Hill Church (open letter, Oct 28, 2014)


Harvard Business Review, Why Chief Human Resource Officers Make Great CEO's (Harvard Business Review, Dec 2014)


Ion Mihai Pacepa, The Secret Roots of Liberation Theology (National Review, Apr 23, 2014) connecting Russian Marxists with planting agents in the Eastern Orthodox


Billy Kanqas, Eastern Orthodoxy and the Pope: Eastern Perspectives (Patheos, Jan 31, 2015)


Nicolai N. Petro, Russia's Orthodox Soft Power (Carnegie Council, Mar 23, 2015)


Pravoslavie, Has Post-Soviet Russia Really Morphed Into a Bulwark of Christian Morality? (Pravoslavie, Apr 28, 2015)


Sarah Eekhoff Zylstra, Pew: Evangelicals Stay Strong as Christianity Crumbles in America (Christianity Today, May 11, 2015)


Rod Dreher, The Evangelical Advantage (The American Conservative, May 20, 2015)


Michael J. Kruger, Were Early Churches Ruled by Elders or a Single Bishop? (Canon Fodder blog, Jul 13, 2015)


Scott Keith, Your Pastor is Broke and In Debt (The Jagged Word blog, Jun 15, 2015)


Father Lev Gillet, The Immaculate Conception and the Orthodox Church (Eclectic Orthodoxy, Sep 1, 2015)


Todd Pruitt, PCA Pastors, Remember Your Vows (The Aquila Report, Nov 22, 2015)


Sergei Chapnin, A Church of Empire: Why the Russian Church Chose to Bless Empire (First Things, Nov 2015)


Ryan P. Hunter, Analyzing the Transformation of Church-State Relations in Russia from 1987 to 2008 (blog, Dec 1, 2015)


Aaron Griffith, Wheaton's Controversy Over Muslims and Christians Ignores the School's Own History (Washington Post, Jan 5, 2016)


Metropolitan Paul Yazigi, The Church's Unity According to Maximus the Confessor (Pravmir, Feb 11, 2016)


Editor, The Current Importance of 1066 and All That (Polemia, May 29, 2017) an Orthodox perspective on the Norman invasion of England and its introduction of Roman Catholicism


Stanley Hauerwas, The Reformation Is Over. Protestants Won. So Why Are We Still Here? (Washington Post, Oct 27, 2017)


Stanley Hauerwas, After the Reformation: How to be Neither Catholic Nor Protestant (ABC Religion and Ethics, Nov 1, 2017) includes the contribution of an Anabaptist perspective to political ethics, and a fascinating discussion of Thomas Aquinas and Karl Barth


Sean Braswell, What the Foreskin of Jesus Can Teach Us All (Ozy, Jun 3, 2018) an entertaining article which challenges the Orthodox-Catholic tradition of relics, the question of Jesus' body waste, the nature of human nature and personhood

Helpful Books and Articles on



David F. Ford and Rachel Muers, The Modern Theologians: An Introduction to Theology Since 1918 (Amazon book, 2005) points out that the organizational context in which theology is studied affects whether theologians dialogue with other fields, like archaeology, classics, literature, history of the early church and the Ancient Near East, etc.  In Britain, theologians were part of the universities, so they did, to their credit.  In Germany and the U.S., theologians were largely in seminaries, so they tended to develop without the dialogue, to their detriment.


G. Jeffrey MacDonald, Oldest U.S. Graduate Seminary to Close Campus (Religion News Service, Nov 13, 2015) about Andover Newton