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This statue is of Augustine of Hippo (354 - 430 AD), a prominent Latin-speaking theologian who had an enormous influence, both positively and negatively.  It was sculpted in the 19th century by Antoine Etex and is in the Church of La Madeleine in Paris.  Photo credit:  Lawrence Lew, OP, Creative Commons 2.0. 

NHI Resources About Christian Theocratic Movements


White American Evangelical Political Attitudes and Behavior: Explanation and Correctives

White American evangelical political attitudes can be characterized by the debate between John Winthrop and Roger Williams, and their respective attitudes towards Native Americans, slavery, fairness, and faith in the civic space.  This is a presentation also explores Scripture and church history to argue that Roger Williams was correct.  Given to the staff of Emmanuel Gospel Center, Apr 18, 2018, as a follow-up to how Christian restorative justice impacts ministry; audio file here

Helpful Resources About Christian Theocratic Movements


Tertullian of Carthage, Letter to Scapula, Governor of Roman North Africa (211 - 213 AD), argues for freedom of religious conscience on Christian grounds, which Augustine later overturned


Augustine, A Treatise Concerning the Correction of the Donatists (Christian Classics Ethereal Library, circa 417 AD), and summary by David Opderbeck (Through a Glass Darkly blog, Feb 22, 2009)


Thomas Talbott, The Theological Justification for Terror (blog, date unknown) on Augustine's theological justification for state force and torture for religious purposes; historical implications elaborated on the Heretication blog, the Egregores blog's review of Perez Zagorin, How the Idea of Religious Toleration Came to the West (Amazon book, 2013), George H. Smith, Notes on Persecution and Toleration in the History of Christianity (Libertarian blog, Feb 13, 2015), George H. Smith, Freethought and Freedom: Augustine's Case for Religious Persecution (Libertarian blog, Feb 13, 2015).  Augustine's separation between the city of man and the City of God did not hold back what his political ethics unleashed.


Wikipedia, History of Christian Thought on Persecution and Tolerance (Wikipedia) see especially "The Augustinian Consensus"


Theocracy Watch (website)


Wikipedia, Dominion Theology (Wikipedia)


Wikipedia, Rousas Rushdoony (Wikipedia) an example of the American Christian authoritarian-capitalist synthesis


(Amazon book, 1984) traces decisions made by the Roman Popes about the Byzantines, the Normans, and the Franks; these decisions laid the groundwork for the Western Catholic and Protestant dependence on political and military power


Michael Hanby, Augustine and Modernity (Amazon book, Jun 2003) defends Augustine's philosophy of the self from complicity in modernity and nihilism


Mark Tooley, An "Augustinian Sensibility" for Evangelicals in Politics (Juicy Ecumenism, Feb 21, 2013)


Joel McDurmon, How to Win the Culture War? (American Vision, Feb 26, 2014) who appeals to Rushdoony, who appeals to Calvin and Augustine


Sarah Pullman Bailey, Why Evangelicals Are Having Trouble Finding a Unified Voice in Washington (Washington Post, May 28, 2015) which I'd say is a good thing


Keith Brekhus, 57% Of Republicans Say Dismantle Constitution And Make Christianity National Religion (Politicus USA, Feb 25, 2015)


Frank Viola, The Shocking Beliefs of Augustine (Patheos blog, Jun 30, 2015)


George Weigel, Society Exists Prior to the State, Obergefell Notwithstanding (Ethics and Public Policy Center, Jul 3, 2015)


Jonathan Merritt, Franklin Graham's Turn Towards Intolerance (The Atlantic, Jul 19, 2015)


Benjamin Wallace, Ted Cruz, the Empty Evangelical (New Yorker, Jan 25, 2016) how evangelicals gave up on changing hearts, so only want to change policy


John Fea, Ted Cruz's Campaign Is Fueled By a Dominionist Vision for America (Religion News Service, Feb 4, 2016) mentions revisionist historian David Barton


Amanda Taub, The Rise of American Authoritarianism (Vox, Mar 1, 2016) says that authoritarian leaders are simple, powerful, and punitive


John Fea, The Theology of Ted Cruz (Christianity Today, Apr 1, 2016)


Samantha Bee, The Religious Right (Full Frontal video, May 16, 2016)


David Corn, Donald Trump Says He Doesn't Believe in "American Exceptionalism" (Mother Jones, Jun 7, 2016)


Andrew Doran, When Christianities Collide: Persecuted Churches of the East Need Dialogue With the West (The American Conservative, Jun 9, 2016)


Tim Gloege, The Crisis of Corporate Evangelicalism (Patheos, Jun 16, 2016) good history of liberal and evangelical traditions


John Savage, Where the Confederacy is Rising Again (Politico, Aug 10, 2016) in East Texas


Justin Gest, Why Trumpism Will Outlast Trump (Politico, Aug 16, 2016) white Protestant nationalism


Frederick Carlson, Dominionism Rising: A Theocratic Movement Hiding in Plain Sight (Political Research Associates, Aug 18, 2016)


Trevaris J. Tutt, Why There is No Need for Prison Reform (The American Vision, Aug 29, 2016)


Benjamin Corey, How Christian Fundamentalism Is Making A Concerning Comeback In America (Patheos, Sep 15, 2016)


Jonathan Merritt, Segregation is Still Alive at These Christian Schools (Daily Beast, Sep 18, 2016)


David Gibson, Is Augustine the Patron Saint of the 2016 Election? (Religion News Service, Nov 3, 2016)


Carol Kuruvilla, Eddie Huang Respectfully Schools Trump Supporter On Religious Freedom (Huffington Post, Nov 15, 2016)


Forsetti's Justice, The Dark Rigidity of Fundamentalist Rural America: A View from the Inside (Raw Story, Nov 22, 2016)


Kieryn Darkwater, I Was Trained for the Culture Wars in Home School, Awaiting Someone Like Mike Pence as a Messiah (Autostraddle, Jan 26, 2017) evangelical fascism, tying theocracy and racism together


Brandon Adams, An American Presbyterian Argument Against Covenanters (Reformed Libertarian, Feb 22, 2017) gets religious liberty and non-covenanting right, but economics wrong


Peter Beinart, When Conservatives Oppose Religious Freedom (The Atlantic, Apr 11, 2017) Christian conservatives who defend Muslim rights have come under fire by their ideological brethren


Ian Speir, The Calvinist Roots of American Social Order: Calvin, Witherspoon, and Madison (Witherspoon Institute, Apr 13, 2017)


Tara Isabella Burton, Study: When It Comes to Detecting Racial Inequality, White Christians Have a Blind Spot (Vox, Jun 23, 2017) in the sense that white evangelicals feel like they are the ones being marginalized


Dahlia Lithwick, A Prayer for the Real Victims (Slate, Jul 19, 2017) for Jeff Sessions and the Supreme Court, the battle for Christians' religious liberty


James Kirchick, How the GOP Became the Party of Putin (Politico, Jul 18, 2017) details pro-active Russian agents cultivating contacts with white evangelicals


Kate Shellnutt, Most White Evangelicals Don’t Believe Muslims Belong in America (Christianity Today, Jul 26, 2017)


Gordon Arnold, Jonathan Edwards: Founding Father of American Political Thought (The Imaginative Conservative, Aug 2017) summarizes Edwards' reliance on Augustine's view of total depravity.  Edwards believed government had no role towards non-Christians' participation in virtue, so could only restrain vice.  Thus, Edwards also argued with the Enlightenment views of John Locke but differed little in practice from Locke's view that government should defend property rights.  Edwards also maintained the Protestant heretical view of the 'national covenant' from Puritan New England, as applied to the United States as a whole.


Naomi Schaefer Riley, The Christian Right Is Finally Taking Liberals’ Advice (National Review, Aug 2, 2017) notes 42% drop in white evangelical belief that personal character is important


Peter Montgomery, POTUS Shield: Trump’s Dominionist Prayer Warriors and the ‘Prophetic Order of the United States’ (Right Wing Watch, Aug 2017)


David R. Brockman, Special Session a ‘Battle Royal’ for Dominionists Who Seek Christian Rule (Texas Observer, Aug 9, 2017)


Frederick Clarkson, "Project Blitz" Seeks to Do for Christian Nationalism What ALEC Does for Big Business (Religion Dispatches, Apr 27, 2018)


Sarah Pulliam Bailey, This Conservative Christian Guide to the Nation’s Capital Vows to Tell You What Other Tours Won’t (Washington Post, May 15, 2018)


Tara Isabella Burton, An Evangelical Christian University is Helping Make a Film That Implies God Chose Trump (Vox, May 30, 2018) re: Liberty University


John Fea, Evangelical Fear Elected Trump (The Atlantic, Jun 24, 2018) a history of white evangelical fear and its influence on American politics, as well as the counter-narrative of evangelicals who held a non-nationalistic position; see also Kristin Kobes Du Mez, Understanding White Evangelical Views on Immigration (Harvard Divinity School, Spr-Sum 2018) discusses white evangelical masculinity


Ed Kilgore, Alleged Russian Spy Was Working to Infiltrate Religious Right As Well As Gun Groups (New York Magazine, Jul 18, 2018) hints at the ideological and relational connections between white American evangelicalism and Putin and the official ethno-nationalist leadership level of the Russian Orthodox Church.  See also Katherine Stewart, What Was Maria Butina Doing at the National Prayer Breakfast? America’s Christian Nationalists Have Been Finding Common Cause With the Russian Government for a While Now (New York Magazine, Jul 18, 2018) - less formally part of "political Augustinianism" and more formally part of a "Byzantine" vision of a Christian Emperor and "orthodox" Christian society, but there is a convergence of postures


Jonathan Wilson-Hartgrove, Jeff Sessions' 'Religious Liberty Task Force' Part of a Dangerous Christian Nationalist Campaign of Discrimination (NBC News, Jul 31, 2018)


Nicole Goodkind, Texas Republicans Will Vote on Whether to Remove Muslim-American from GOP Position Because of His Religion (Newsweek, Jan 9, 2019).  See also Donica Phifer, Texas Republicans Turn in Landslide Vote to Keep Muslim-American in Leadership Role (Newsweek, Jan 11, 2019) but this will still be important to watch


Wajahat Ali, The Religious-Liberty Claim the Justices Didn’t Want to Hear (The Atlantic, Feb 11, 2019) "If the free-exercise clause allows you not to bake and sell a cake, maybe it should also allow you to have an imam at your own execution."  See also David French, The Supreme Court Upholds a Grave Violation of the First Amendment (National Review, Feb 8, 2019)


The Young Turks, Fear and Loathing in the Conservative Mind (The Young Turks, Feb 14, 2019) the emotion of disgust, and its correlation to politically conservative instincts; how language triggering disgust is often used with religious ideology of a "pure community."  References Kathleen McAuliffe, Fear This Is Your Brain on Parasites: How Tiny Creatures Manipulate Our Behavior and Shape Society (Amazon book, 2016); see Kathleen McAuliffe, The Psychology (and Politics) of Disgust (Big Think, Sep 23, 2016)


Mark Joseph Stern, Brett Kavanaugh Shows How Eager He Is to Tear Down the Wall Between Church and State (Slate, Mar 4, 2019)


Ted Olsen, Religious Freedom Isn't Just for Christians (Christianity Today, Mar 15, 2019) the Supreme Court case 5-4 against Domineque Ray who lost his case to have his Muslim imam visit him in prison before his death penalty execution

how separation of church and state, and religious tolerance and pluralism, has a Christian origin

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